Sir John de Beauchamp at Essewelle or Esol

John de Beauchamp, one of the founding Knights of the Garter. Pictured in The Garter Book, 1435
John de Beauchamp, one of the founding Knights of the Garter in 1348, along with his brother Thomas, 3rd Earl of Warwick. Pictured in The Garter Book, 1435

In 1349 the Abbot of St. Alban’s was the Lord of the Manor of Esol, and his manorial rent rolls for that year show that Sir John de Beauchamp held at Esole:-‘one messuage [now called Beauchamps-my note] with dovecot, 60a arable, 12a pasture at a total annual manorial rental of 52 s.6d payable to the Abbot of St. Alban’s’.
Sir John was one of the most successful of King Edward III commanders in the wars in Northern France and the Low Countries. He fought in Flanders in 1338; was present at the array at Vironfosse in October of 1339 when the armies of the English and French kings met but did not come to battle; and took part in the sea battle of Sluys on 24th June, 1340.

Edward, the Black Prince is granted Aquitaine by his father King Edward III. Initial letter "E" of miniature, 1390; British Library, shelfmark: Cotton MS Nero D VI, f.31

dward, Prince of Wales and eldest son of Edward III, played a key part in the great victory over the French at Crécy on 26th August, 1346, even though he was only aged 16 at the time. He was known as Edward of Woodstock during his life time and as The Black Prince after his death, possibly due to the black armour he wore. During the Battle of Crecy Sir John carried the Royal Standard whilst fighting alongside his brother, the Earl of Warwick, and his brother-in-law, Lord Say.
Sir John was also present at the successful siege of Calais which lasted from September, 1346, until August, 1347, and gained possession of Calais for the English Crown which retained it until 1558 when it was finally lost in the reign of Mary Tudor. On hearing of its loss Queen Mary reputedly said “When I am dead and opened, you shall find ‘Calais’ lying in my heart”.

Scene from the Battle of Crecy, 1346. Fierce fighting between soldiers and knights in armour during the Battle of Crecy, Picardie,France. From "Les Chroniques de France" ,The British Library, London, Great Britain
The Battle of Crecy, 1346. During the battle Sir John carried the Royal Standard, seen on the left of the illustration. From “Les Chroniques de France” ,The British Library.

After the Battle of  Crecy Sir John de Beauchamp (often referred to as Bello Campo in contemporary Latin documents) began acquiring various land-holdings in and around the parish of Nonington, Esol was in his possession by 1349. These and other land acquisitions in northern Kent were possibly paid for with money received from ransoming French prisoners taken at the battle.

The post mortem inquisition after his death in 1360 recorded his Kent holdings as follows :
“Inquisition taken at Canterbury, 4 March, 35 Edward III. 1362 (1363)

Nonyngton. Tenements at Easole [later known as Beauchamps Manor], consisting of a messuage with dovecot, 60a. arable, 12a. pasture, held in gavelkind of the abbot of St. Alban’s by service of rendering 52s. 6d. yearly at his court of Easole in equal portions at Michaelmas, Christmas, Mid-Lent and Midsummer, and doing suit at the same court every three weeks.

Monketon [now called Gooseberry Hall Farm]. 8a. arable held in gavelkind of the prior and convent of Christ Church, Canterbury, by service of rendering at their court of Adesham 20d. yearly at Mid-Lent and doing suit there every three weeks.

Fredevylle [Fredville]. 12a. arable held in gavelkind of the lady of Say by service of rendering at the court of Fredevyll 4s. 8d. by equal portions at Michaelmas and Palm Sunday and two hens at Christmas. [Lady Say was Sir John’s sister].

Nonyngton. 40a. land called ‘ten’ atte med’  held in gavelkind of the archbishop of Canterbury by service of rendering yearly at his court of Wyngeham 11s. and doing suit there every three weeks.

Godweston [Goodnestone]. 5a. land held of the same archbishop by service of rendering yearly at the court of Wyngeham 20d.

Freydevill [Fredville]. 24s. rent of free tenants [free holders who paid various manorial rents to Sir John for land they held on the Manor of Freydevill]”.

Note the various spellings of Fredevylle ect. within the same document.

In Kent Sir John also held the adjoining manors of Silham and Mere in the southern part of the parish Rainham some 34 miles south of London on the Dover road, and also the Manor of Cheddyngston, now Chiddingstone, in the parish of Cobham parish on the same road some seven miles closer to London.  Nonington is some thirty-five miles or so from these holdings.

Baynard’s castle is perhaps the lesser known of the three Norman London castles after the Tower of London (established 1066) and Montfichet’s Castle (by 1136). Baynard’s has a rich history as both a castle owned by the Duke of Gloucester and, after 1446, the crown when it became a royal palace.
Baynard’s castle is perhaps the lesser known of the three Norman London castles after the Tower of London (established 1066) and Montfichet’s Castle (by 1136). Baynard’s has a rich history as both a castle owned by the Duke of Gloucester and, after 1446, the crown when it became a royal palace.

Sir John primarily resided in a large house he had had built in the Parish of St. Andrew in the ward of Castle Baynard in London  which was later purchased by the Crown for use as the King’s Wardrobe. In his 1598 survey of the cities of London and Westminster John Strype recorded:

“Then is the King’s great Wardrobe. [I have not read by whom the same was builded, neither when, or for what Cause; but only that] Sir John Beauchamp, Knight of the Garter, Constable of Dover, Warden of the Cinque Ports, Son to Guido de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, builded this House, was lodged there; this House then bearing the Name of the King’s Wardrobe, in the 5th of Edw. III. The said Sir John Beauchamp deceased in the Year 1359. and was buried on the South side of the middle Ile of Pauls Church. His Executors sold the House to King Edward III. unto whom the Parson of St. Andrews complaining, that the said Beauchamp had pulled down divers Houses, in their places to build the same House, whereby he was hindred of his accustomed Tithes, paid by the Tenants of old time; granted him 40s. by the Year out of that House, for ever. King Richard III. was lodged there in the 2d of his Reign.

In this House, of late Years, was lodged Sir John Fortescue, Kt. Master of the Wardrobe, Chancellor and under Treasurer of the Exchequer, and one of her Majesty’s Privy Councel. The secret Letters and Writings, touching the Estate of the Realm, were wont to be inrolled in the King’s Wardrobe, and not in the Chancery, as appeareth by the Records. Claus. 18. E. 4 1 Memb. 13. Claus. 33. E. 1. Memb. 3 Et liberat. 1. E. 2. Memb. 4. &c”.
The house was near the old St. Paul’s Cathedral and along with the cathedral was destroyed in the Great Fire of London of 1666 and now remembered as Wardrobe Place, EC4.

Sir John most likely acquired his Kent properties so that he and other members of his family and entourage had accommodation when travelling from London to Sandwich or Dover to take ship to the Continent, or  likewise in the other direction from Sandwich or Dover to London. Travelers from London could stay at one of the  northern Kent manors before continuing on to Nonington, some five or six miles from Sandwich, then one of the most important ports in England, and some ten miles or so from Dover, then a lesser port than Sandwich. They could then have crossed the English Channel from either port to  Northern France and the Low Countries where King Edward III was campaigning in pursuit of his claim to the French throne. Thirty-five miles was about the furthest that could be comfortably traveled in one day on the roads of the time, especially in winter. In addition to providing accommodation for travelers these Kent estates could also have supplied provisions for the de Beauchamp fighting men and horses  campaigning across the Channel and later to Sir John when he was Captain of Calais.

Arms of John de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp -d.1360- Gules, a fesse between six crosses crosslet or, a mullet for difference
Arms of John de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp -d.1360- Gules, a fesse between six crosses crosslet or, a mullet for difference. Differenced for a third son.

Edward III made Sir John  a Knight Banneret in 1347  with an annual allowance of £140 to enable him to support this title. A Knight Banneret was entitled to bear a small square banner rather than the swallow-tailed pennon of a Knight Bachelor and he commanded a body of officers and men, i.e. knights, esquires and soldiers, whom he raised to serve under his banner, but who were paid by the Crown.

The following year the King further honoured Sir John by making him Captain of Calais, and soon after this Edward III appointed Sir John as Admiral of the Fleet; Constable of the Tower of London; and Warden of the Cinque Ports.  Sir John was summoned to Parliament by the King as Baron Beauchamp of Warwick in 1350 where he served until his death.
Sir John’s duties as Captain of Calais and Warden of the Cinque Ports would have involved a lot of travelling to and from London, and the Kent properties would have  provided Sir John with accommodation and provisions. Sir John lost the position of Constable of the Tower in 1354 because of rumours against him, but the King subsequently reappointed him when these proved unfounded.

THE MONUMENT OF SIR JOHN BEAUCHAMP, POPULARLY KNOWN AS DUKE HUMPHREY'S TOMB. After W. Hollar.
THE MONUMENT OF SIR JOHN BEAUCHAMP, POPULARLY KNOWN AS DUKE HUMPHREY’S TOMB.
After W. Hollar.

Sir John Beauchamp, 1st. Lord Beauchamp of Warwick, died from plague at Calais on 2nd December of 1360, and his body was returned to England, possibly via Nonington where it may have rested in the church, to be buried between two pillars before the image of the Virgin on the south side of the nave of Old St. Paul’s Cathedral.  The monument to his memory is commonly, but incorrectly, called “Duke Humphrey’s Tomb” . John had no legitimate children so his title became extinct and his property passed to family members.

In 1368 Sir John’s nephew Roger and other co-heirs offered “le manoir de Easole” to the Priory of Christ Church in Canterbury on the condition: “namely, that one of your monks there should be perpetually specially assigned and deputed to sing mass, at the Altar of Our Lady in the Crypt, wearing vestments decorated with the arms of the Warwick family, and praying for the souls of our said uncle and our ancestors”. The priory’s response was that: “to bear and perform such a charge for so small a repayment, where there is scarcely any profit, would be too burdensome for us; wherefore, Sire, be pleased in this case to have us excused”. The refusal of the bequest indicates how unprofitable agricultural land had become in the aftermath of the Black Death of  1348 to 1350 which had killed up to half of the population of England. Sporadic outbreaks of  this awful disease continued to occur in England  into the 1360’s and beyond.

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