A survey of Archbishop Pecham’s Kentish Manors 1283-85.

Published by Kent Archaeological Society in 2000. Archive ref: DA 1000a, also Arch. Cant. Vol XXXI page 169. Visitations.

The following are extracts from the above publication for hamlets, also known as villes, which formed a part of the Archbishop of Canterbury’s Manor of Wingham, the inhabitants of which owed service directly to the Archbishop. The survey did not include land within the knight’s fees of  Ackholt, Ratling, and Old Court which were held directly from the Archbishop. Land holders within the fee owed service to the holder of the fee, who in turn owed service to the Archbishop.

For information on fuedal dues and customs, and ancient units of measurement not explained in the footnotes, refer to http://www.nonington.org.uk/old-units-of-measurement/

Ackholt
Thomas son of Stephen of Ackholt holds 314 acres of freeland [1] (comprising 1/8 of a knight’s fee [Du Boulay 1966, 389-90]). For this he owes nothing except suit at the court [2] of Canterbury; rent at Wingham at two terms; and what pertains to one freeman at session of the Hundred court in dealing with indictments for bloodshed, and to one shireman [3] in presentments at the county (court) and at holdings of the eyre [4].

John le Hert and Theobald le Hert hold thirty acres, Robert Blake holds 12 ½ acres. 

Thomas son of John Blake holds 12 ½ acres.

William of North Nonington and Seyena of Ackholt hold 6 acres, ½ a virgate [5] from the tenement of Osbert Smart.

Nicholas of Oxenden and Geoffrey of Oxenden hold 4 acres. 

Simon of Holestreete holds 2 acres, 1 virgate, and Roger of Holestreete 1 ½ acres.

Philip the Cooper holds 2 acres.

The heirs of Roger Lap hold ½ acre, ½ virgate.

The heirs of Roger storm (from Stourmouth [Wallenberg PNK 513]) hold 1 acre, 3 virgates.

The heirs of Robert Shameles (probably from shamelum, a shambles or market [Latham, 421-2, sub scamellum]) hold ½ acre.  And 2 acres, 3 virgates are vacant. Of these 76 ½  acres there are 5 ½ acres of inland [6]  by Dierth, for the gavel-land there are owed 3 boon-workers, 3 stackers, 1 averagium  [7] and 1 seam [8] of malt.

Egidius of Ackholt holds 10 ½ acres and Richard Shameles 10 ½ acres from the land of Eilnoth of Denne. For these 21 acres they provide 2 boon-workers [9] and 2 stackers, undertake 1 averagium and make 1 seam of malt.

This hamlet contains 118 acres of gavel-land and 11 acres of inland. The gavel- land provides 7 boon-workers, 2 carts, 5 stackers, 3 averagia, and 3 seams of malt.  The inland and freeland owe no service.

Payments to the Archbishop
Theobald le Hert, 1 hen.  John le Hert, 1 hen.  Henry Dabloe & partners from the tenement of Smart, 1 hen. Robert Blake, 1 hen. Thos.  Blake,1 hen.  John, son of John Dabloe from the tenement of Ralph of Acholt,1 hen.  Egidius of Acholt from Dennesland [Denne Hill?] , 1 hen.  Seyene of Ackholt from the tenement of Sedemay, 1 hen.  In total 8 hens.

  1. Freeland, land free of customary manorial dues and services and was used principally of knights fees. A Freeman was the holder of freeland.

Knights fee. All land was held from the King, ‘the Lord Paramount’, either by ‘tenants-in-chief’ or someone else.  The land holders were subject to certain services, one of which was Knights Service, which was rent or service owed initially by those with more than twelve ploughs worth of land, and after the reign of Edward II for land worth more than twenty pounds per annum. If called the ower of the service had to go to war at their own expense with their overlord for forty days if a full fee was owed, twenty days for a half fee, and so on in proportion to the fee held.

  1. Suit of court was a tenants duty to attend the lord of the Manors court.
  2. Shireman, a shireland tenant. Shireland was an elevated form of gavelkind tenure carrying special representational duties, i.e. at shire courts and gave a status verging on that of knight’s fees. Gavelkind was the principle freehold land tenure in Kent existing into the early 20th century. The custom of inheritance insisting on equal division of property amongst male, and in the absence of male heirs, female heirs. This led to the fragmentation of land holdings.

Gavel land was land held by payment of gavel rent, usually 1d per acre, usually little by way of service by the Gavelmen,  the free holders of land under Gavelkind.

  1. An Eyre or Iter was the name of a circuit travelled by an itinerant justice in medieval England, or the circuit court he presided over, or the right of the king (or justices acting in his name) to visit and inspect the holdings of any vassal. The eyre involved visits and inspections at irregular intervals of the houses of all vassals in the kingdom, and often provoked terror in the populace; the 1233 Eyre of Cornwall, for example, caused most of the population to flee into the woods.

5.The virgate (Medieval Latin: virgāta) or yardland (Middle English: yardland) was a unit of land area measurement used in medieval England, typically outside the Danelaw, and was held to be the amount of land that a team of two oxen could plough in a single annual season. It was equivalent to a quarter of a hide, so was nominally thirty acres.  A ‘virgater’ would thus be a peasant who occupied or worked this area of land, and a ‘half virgater’ would be a person who occupied or worked about 15 acres (61,000 m2).

  1. Inland, a dependant tenure, so named because the earlier holdings of this type were clustered closely around the arable demesne.
  2. Averagium was the carriage of goods by pack horse, foot-averagium was the service of carrying goods, messages or other documents by foot.
  3. Seam, a measure of capacity, variable depending on the type of product and defined by statute as ‘a good horse load’. A seam for corn and salt equalled 8 bushels, whilst for faggots, bundles of wood then used for fuel, it was fixed at rates varying from manor to manor.
  4. Boon-worker, a labourer provided by the tenant at no charge to the land-lord.

Bonnington
Bonnington was not in the old parish of Nonington but some Nonington residents held land there.
Henry Dovorr’ (Dover ? later de Retlyng?-see Ratling) and Thomas son of Gilbert hold 75 ½ acres for which they provide 4 boon-workers and 4 light carts and perform the custom of ½ a Shireman .

John of Bonnington holds 38 acres, 1 virgate for which he provides 2 boon-workers and 2 light carts.  Alexander of Coleshill holds 38 acres 1 virgate. For these 76 ½ acres they perform the custom of 1 Shireman.

And Alexander owes in the hamlet of Uffington boon-workers, carts and the custom of ½ Shireman. 

William le V[F]rode and Goldelina hold 31 acres for which they provide 2 boon-workers and 2 stackers, undertake 1 averagium and make 1 seam of malt.

William Adgar holds 39 acres for which he provides 2 boon-workers and 3 light carts.

Gilbert Baudechim holds 12 acres from the tenement of Eugene for which he provides 1 boon-worker, and 1 light cart. For these 51 acres they make 1 seam of malt and undertake 1 averagium.

Gilbert Baudechim, Robert Baudechim, Thomas son of Adam and his brothers hold 12 acres and Robert of Chillenden 12 acres. For these 24 acres they provide 2 boon-workers and 2 light carts, undertake 1 averagium and make 1 seam of malt.

Gilbert Baudechim holds 12 acres from the land of William Long, Robert of Steghele, John Cooper and Stephen Weaver (textor) hold 7 acres and Thomas of Bonnington and Gilbert Baudechim hold 5 acres from the land of Walter of Tuniford. For these 23 acres they provide 2 boon-workers and 2 stackers, undertake 1 averagium and make 1 seam of malt. 

Adam the Cooper and Richard son of Thomas hold 9 acres, 3 virgates from the lands of Osmund. Theobald the Tanner holds 17 acres from the land of le Lome. For these 26 acres, 3 virgates they provide 2 boon-workers, 2 stackers, undertake 1 averagium and make 1 seam of malt.

William Adgar holds 6 ½ acres from the lands of Fulchir, for which he provides a 1/3 share of 2 stackers and 2 boon-workers, undertakes ¼ averagium and makes ¼ seam of malt.

This hamlet contains 319 acres, 1 rood. It provides 17 boon-workers, 11 stackers, 12 light carts, 5 ¼ averagia and 5 seams and 2 bushels of malt.

Payments to the Archbishop
John of Bonnington, 1 hen.  Thos. of Bonnington, 1 hen.  Henry Dover, 1 hen-later de Retlyng?.  William Adger, 1 hen; the same for his land at Soles (now Soles Court Farm, near Frogham), 1 hen.  Wm.  le V[F]rode, 1 hen.  Heirs of Richard le V[F]rode, 1 hen.  Adam Cooper, 1 hen.  Robert at Steghele, 1 hen.  Robt.  of Chillenden for the tenement of Ralph.  Richd.  Baudechim, 1 hen.  Heirs to Adam Baudechim, 1 hen.  Tenement of Tuniford, 1 hen.  Heirs of Srin[v}eday[?], 1 hen.  From the tenement of Eugene, 1 hen.  In total 15 hens.   

Kittington
Gilbert Parson, Henry son of John and Roger and Alexander his brother hold 59 acres for which they provide 1 boon-worker and 1 ½ harrows [1]. Joanna daughter of Lord Walter of Wingham and her sister hold 59 acres for which they provide 1 boon-worker and 1 ½ harrows. For these 118 acres they undertake to provide 1 averagium but make no malt nor plough nor reap nor telework [2]  and nor do other from this hamlet.

This [group of tenants also] hold 22 acres from the tenement of Geremund but owe nothing for it except rent because it is inland.

William son of Walter and Alan his brother hold 17 ½ acres together with 17 ½ acres from the land of Robert and 7 ½ acres from the tenement of Beregaderer (possibly from ‘bere’ a type of barley (possible origin of ‘beer’? my note) and ‘gathered’). For those 42 ½ acres they provide 6 boon-workers and 9 harrowers and undertake 1 averagium.

William Mot holds 25 acres for which he provides 2 boon-workers and 3 harrowers and undertakes 1 averagium (Mot family also held Broadsole aka Frogham Farm for many years).

Juliana at Logge holds 7 ½ acres. William of Northalle holds 7 ½ acres from the tenement of Le[e]s. Alexander Spr’nget holds 7 acres from the tenement of Eilard for these 22 acres they provide 6 boon-workers and 9 harrowers and undertake 1 averagium.

Richard of Woghope (a Richard of Woghope was Treasurer to the Archbishop in 1331. Du Boulay 1966 397) holds 93 acres, ½ virgate for which he provides ½ boon-worker and performs ¼ of the custom of 1 Shireman. [Woghhopes, {also Woodhope, Wohope, Whoope{ held Harnden, sometimes Heronden, in Eastry parish and land in Nonington. Commission of oyez and terminer in April, 1323,  for John de Woghhope against various neighbours in Knolton, Ash and Eastry for breaking his close and houses in Nonynton and carrying away his goods].

Thomas of Goodnestone holds 310 ½ acres from the tenement of Ralph and 62 acres from the tenements of Gilbert Thurston and Geremund. For these 372 ½ he performs with Richard of Woghope the custom of 1 full Shireman.  The other customs are commuted for money as described below. The same Thomas holds 418 acres 3 virgates in the hamlet of Goodnestone for which he performs the custom of 1 Shireman, touching the crown of the lord King and for the land he holds there and in Kittington he pays annually for commuted service 5s 3d.

William of Northalle holds 170 acres for which he provides 2 boon-workers and performs the custom of 1 Shireland.

The hamlet contains 207 acres of gavel-land, 263 acres of Shireland, 22 acres of inland providing 18 boon-workers, 24 harrowers and 3 averagia but (the tenants) do not plough reap or make malt. The Shireland provides ½ boon-worker. The inland owes no service.

Payments to the Archbishop
William le Mot for the enclosure, 1 hen.  William at Northalle: {for the tenement of} Le[e]s, 1hen. Julianna de la Logge from the tenement of Henry Our’th, 1 hen.  Heirs of Walter of Wingham, 1 hen.  Heirs of Alexander Sp’inget from the tenement of Eilard, 1 hen.  Alan Upton, 1 hen.  In total 7 hens.

  1. Harrows are agricultural implements used to break up the soil on ploughed land prior to sewing seed.
  2. Telework was the service owed for ploughing.

North Nonington
Margaret daughter of William of Nonington holds 50 acres from the land of Alfred (of Nonington) and she and Adam Herlewyne hold 25 acres. From these 75 acres they provide 1 boon-worker, 2 carts and perform as much as pertains to ½ Shireman together with customs of ploughing and reaping. They also hold 3 acres 3 roods of inland for which they owe no service.

Hamo at Mede holds 75 acres for which he provides 1 boon-worker and 2 carts and performs as much as pertains to ½ Shireman with customs of ploughing and reaping. He also holds 3 acres 3 roods of inland for which he owes no service.

From the tenements of Burnevale, Thomas of Bonnington holds 45 acres, Gilbert son of Thomas and Peter son of Alan hold 5 acres, the heirs of Robert Shameles hold 5 acres; the heirs of Thomas of Ackholt hold 18 acres; John Storm holds 1 ½ acres; Thomas [The?] Chaplain holds 11 acres; William of Nonington 47 acres; Geoffrey of Wood {Word =Worth?  my note} holds 3 ½ acres Stephen Goldsmith holds 1 ½ acres; John of Messeberghe and Thomas of Chillenden  holds 12 acres; and Emma Shameles holds 4 ½  acres. And there remains 2 acres for which they all answer. For these 157 ½ acres they provide 2 boon-workers and 2 carters undertake 1 averagium and make 1 seam of malt. This hamlet contains 307 ½ acres of gavel-land, and 7 ½ acres of inland. The gavel-land provides 4 boon-workers, 6 carters, 1 averagium and 1 seam of malt. And the hamlet contains 1 Shireland.

Payments to the Archbishop.
From the messuage of Alfred of Nonnington, 1 hen.  From the messuage of Hamo of Mede, 1 hen.  From the messuage of Herlewyne, 1 hen.  From the messuage of Burnevale, 1 hen.
In total, 4 hens.

South Nonington
Simon and John sons of Robert Shameles hold 25 acres 1 virgate for which they provide 2 boon-workers and 2 carters, undertake 1 averagium and make 1 seam of malt.

Robert of Fingesthere and John his brother hold 25 ½ acres for which they provide 2 boon-workers and 2 stackers, undertake 1 averagium and make 1 seam of malt.

The heirs of Robert Shameles and Robert Shameles hold 4 acres of pasture for which no customs are owed.

John Storm, Alfred and Reyn’us hold 5 acres and also 3 acres 3 virgates from the tenement of Humbold from which Richard Shameles holds another 2 ½ acres. For these 13 acres 3 virgates they provide 2 boon-workers and 2 stackers, undertake 1 averagium and make 1 seam of malt.

Sayena of Ackholt holds 11 ½ acres from the lands of Sedemay and 5 acres 3 virgates from the land of Geremund , from the same land the heirs of William son of Alexander and John son of Alexander hold 3 acres 3 virgates. For these 23 acres they provide 2 boon-workers and 2 stackers, undertake 1 averagium and make 1 seam of malt.

Robert son of Walter Lap and John and William his brothers hold 2 ½ acres; Richard Shameles and his partners hold 2 ½ acres from the land of Sneynot. For these 5 acres they provide 1 boon-worker and 1 stacker and undertake 1 foot- averagium.

The heirs of William son of Alexander and their partners hold 7 acres from the land of Asketyn for which they provide 1 boon-worker and 1 stacker and undertake 1 foot-averagium. 

This hamlet contains 99 ½ acres of gavel-land and 4 acres of pasture. The gavel-land provides 10 boon-workers, 8 stackers, 2 carters, 4 averagia, 2 foot-averagia and 4 seams of malt. The pasture owes no service.

Payments to the Archbishop.
John Storm (of Stourmouth) for messuage, 1 hen.  Alfred Storm (of Stourmouth) for the messuage, 1 hen.  Reynard storm (of Stourmouth) for the messuage, 1 hen.  Richard Shameles of Dennesland, 1 hen.  Simon Shameles & partners, 1 hen.  John Mobili [?], & partners for Geremund, 1 hen.  Henry le Lap & partners, 1 hen.  Richard Shameles for messuage, 1 hen.  In total 8 hens.   

Oxenden
Thomas Raus and Richards Raus hold 19 acres and 3 virgates and 8 acres which are liable to pethamlode [1].

Thomas de Oxenden holds 19 acres 3 virgates. For these 47 ½ acres they provide 2 boon-workers, 2 carts, and 2 harrowers, undertake 1 averagium, make 1 seam of malt and perform pethamlode.

The widow of Nicholas of Oxenden holds 16 ½ acres ½ virgate, Eilnoth son of Malger and Richard son of Malger hold 16 ½ acres ½ virgate. For these 33 acres 1 virgate they provide 2 stackers, 2 boon-workers and 2 harrowers, make 1 seam of malt undertake 1 averagium and perform pethamlode.

Eilnoth s of Thomas and John his brother hold 38 acres for which they provide 2 boon-workers, 2 stackers, and 2 harrowers, undertake 1 averagium, make 1 seam of malt and perform pethamlode.

Simon of Warin holds 6 acres, Richard Knote holds 6 acres from the land of Vincent and 7 acres from that of Godwin.  From the land of Osmund, Thomas of Oxenden holds 3 ½ acres ½ virgate and Alexander of Oxenden and Simon le Heler hold 3 ½ acres ½ virgate. Stephen Barate holds 7 ½ acres from the land of Adam Pette. For these 33 acres they provide 2 boon-workers, 2 stackers, and 2 harrowers, undertake 1 averagium, make 1 seam of malt and perform pethamlode.

Stephen Goldsmith holds from the land of Eilnoth 8 acres 1 virgate, Richard Malger holds from the lands of Cobbe 8 acres 1 virgate. Geoffrey of Oxenden holds 16 ½ acres. For these 33 acres they provide 2 boon-workers, 2 stackers and 2 harrowers, undertake 1 averagium, make 1 seam of malt and perform pethamlode.

This hamlet contains 129 acres of gavel-land and 53 ½ acres of inland. It provides 12 boon-workers, 10 stackers, 10 harrowers, 2 carts, undertake 5 averagia, make 5 seams of malt and provide 4 carts of pethamlode.

Payments to the Archbishop
Thomas of Oxenden, 1 hen.  Eilnoth of Oxenden & John his brother, 1 hen.  Heirs of Nicholas of Oxenden & partners, 1 hen.  Eilnoth Lager &  associates, 1 hen.  Richard, son of Malger from the lands of Cobbe, 1 hen.  Baldwin Osmund, 1 hen.  Richard Knote & partners, 1 hen.  From the same from the land of Godwin, 1 hen.  In total 9 hens.

  1. Pethamlode was the delivery of 20 or so loads wood yearly to the lord which applied to heavily wooded areas. The loads had to be delivered to specified places and were usually for fencing or building purposes.

Crudes, later Curlswood Park Farm.
Cotland was inferior type of land tenure, usually in wood land, some rights such as grazing attached. Cotland local to the old parish of Nonington in the 13th and 14th centuries were some heavily wooded areas on the fringe of Wingham, manor at Crudes and Wolneth.  At Crudes, (Crudes Wood, later Curleswood Park Farm) Richard Hokemok held two parts and Rikemund the widow of Alexander Crud (from whence the name came) held the third part. Crudes consisted of 244 acres, Wolneth (Woolege) extended to  296 ½ acres. Of Woolege Wood 93 acres remained virtually intact until after the Second World War and it’s extent is still plainly marked out by tree belts.

Soles.
William Adgar and Stephen son of Henry hold 22 acres for which they provide 3 stackers, undertake 1 averagium & make 1 seam of malt.

[This land was not on the Manor of Soles but in the area then known as Soles. It would have bordered on the manor of Soles, most likley in the Frogham area].

Payments the Archbishop.
For their land at Soles, 1 hen.